BENGAL GRAM

 

    Botanical     Name    :  Cicer aritinum L.       Family:   Leguminoseae.         

1.    INTRODUCTION

Bengal gram is called Chickpea or Gram (Cicer aritinum L.) in South Asia and Garbanzo bean in most of the developed world. Bengal gram is a major pulse crop in India, widely grown for centuries and accounts for nearly 40 percent of the total pulse production. India is the major growing country of the world, accounting for 61.65 percent of the total world area under Bengal gram and 68.13 percent of the total world production.

Bengal gram is widely appreciated as health food.  It is a protein-rich supplement to cereal-based diets, especially to the poor in developing countries, where people are vegetarians or cannot afford animal protein. It offers the most practical means of eradicating protein malnutrition among vegetarian children and nursing mothers. It has a very important role in human diet in our country.   



 

 

 



2.   NUTRITIONAL VALUE OF EDIBLE PORTION PER 100 G
 

 

Food

Energy calorie

Protein g

Fat

g

Calcium

mg

Iron

mg

Thiamin

mg

Riboflavin

mg

Niacin

mg

Vit. C

mg

Vit. A

mcg

1. Bengal      gram (whole)

 

360

 

17.1

 

5.3

 

202

 

10.2

 

0.30

 

0.15

 

2.9

 

3

 

189

2. Bengal gram (Dal)

 

372

 

20.8

 

5.6

 

56

 

9.1

 

0.48

 

0.18

 

2.4

 

1

 

129


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


3.   ZONE-WISE MAJOR COMMERCIAL VARIETIES  

Important improved varieties of Bengal gram  for different zones in India

1. North-western Zone

(Punjab, Haryana, Western Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan,     Himachal    Pradesh, Delhi, Jammu & Kashmir)

C214, C235, H208, H355, G130, G543, RS10, RS11,   RSG2, GL769, GNG146, Pusa209, Pusa212, Pusa261, Pusa408, Gaurav, K850, Radhey, BGD1053, Pusa372, L550, L144, Harechhole1, Pusa362, Pusa1053, Pusa256, RSG888, GPF2, PVG1, PG186, Uday, Pusa391, Haryana Chana1, Karnal Chana1, DCP-92-3, Gora Hisari, Samrat, Vardhan, Chamatkar, Pusa267, ICCV32, KAK2.

 

2. North-eastern Zone                                                              : K468, K850, JG74, K4, K5, T3, Pant G114, G24, BR77,

  (Eastern Uttar Pradesh, Bihar,       BR78, Radhey BR168, Pusa 209, Pusa240,Pusa256,

   Orissa, West Bengal, Assam)

 

K468, K850, JG74, T3, Pant G114, G24, BR77,L550,   BR78, Radhey BR168, Pusa256, Pusa413, B110, B115, ST4, C235, Avrodhi, pusa209, pusa240, K4, K5, KGD1168, Uday, Annigeri (Co), Pusa362, Pusa1053, Pusa1003.

3. Central Zone                                                              : JG62, JG74, JG221, JG315, JG5, Annigeri, Ujjain21, U24,

     (Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat,                    Maharashtra)

JG62, JG74, JG221, JG315, JG5, Annigeri, Ujjain21, U24, Gwalior3, Dohad yellow, Chaffa, BDN 9-3, T3, H355, N31, N59, Vikas, D8, Pusa209, Pusa244, Pusa212, Pusa417, Pusa 256, Pusa391, BGD72, BGD1053, Pusa372, ICCC4, L550, Vaibhav, Vishal, GCPG62101, Radhey, JP315, Phule-G-12, Vijay, ICCV10( Bharti), Gulak1(Gulabi Akola1), Kak2, ICCV2.

 

4. Peninsular Zone                                                              : Annigeri, BDN 9-3,  Chaffa,Co1, Co2, ICCC4, JG74,

  (Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka,     Kerala, Tamil Nadu)       

 

Annigeri, BDN 9-3,  Chaffa, Co1, Co2, JG74,

Jyothi, Radhey, ICCC4, ICCV10 (Bharti), JG11, ICCL80074, ICCV37, ICCV2.

 



 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                   

4.   HARVESTING       

 Following care should be taken during harvest  

1)        Avoid use of pesticides prior to harvest.  

2)        Avoid over-maturity of crop.  

3)        Harvesting before the crop matures usually means a lower yield and also a higher proportion of immature seeds.  

4)        Timely harvesting ensures optimum grain quality and consumer acceptance.  

5)        Keep harvested crop for drying in the field.  

6)        Tag the bundles properly and keep at proper place.  

7)        Drying results in optimum moisture content in safe storage of produce over a longer period of time.  

8)        Avoid harvesting during adverse weather conditions.  

Measures should be taken to avoid post-harvest losses.  
a)                     
Timely harvest.  
b)                     
Use of proper method of harvesting.  
c)                      
Adopt modern mechanical methods of threshing and winnowing.  
d)                     
Use of improved technique of processing.  
e)                     
Cleaning and grading of produce.  
f)                        
Use of efficient and good packaging for storage as well as for transportation.  
g)                     
Use of proper technique in storage.  
h)                      
Use of pest control measures in storage.  
i)                        
Proper care in handling of packages.  
j)                        
Avoid use of hooks during handling.




 

 

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

5.   GRADING  

Grading and marking of agricultural produce as per accepted quality standards helps farmers, marketing functionaries, processors, traders and consumers in efficient marketing.  
i)            
It enables the farmer to get higher price of the produce.
   

ii)           
It facilitates competitive marketing.
 

iii)            It widens the marketing process as buying and selling can take place between two parties at distant places, by quoting grades.  

iv)            It reduces the cost of marketing.  

v)             It minimises storage loss.  

vi)            It facilitates in maintaining quality of the produce.  

vii)           It helps the consumers to get standard quality of produce at reasonable prices.  

viii)          It facilitates the futures trading.  

ix)           It helps in  price stabilisation.  

 5.1    Grade Specifications

 A)   Agmark  

    The Agricultural Produce (Grading and Marking) Act, 1937 was enacted to maintain the quality of agricultural produce in India. The Act authorises the Central Government to frame rules related to the fixing of grade standards and the procedure to be adopted to grade the agricultural commodities included in the schedules. The grade standards specified for Bengal gram pulse and Besan drawn by Directorate of Marketing and Inspection are given in Annexure I and II respectively.  

 B)   Prevention of Food Adulteration Act (PFA),1954  

                 PFA has also prescribed the grade specification for whole chana, Dal chana and Besan which is given in Annexure III.  

C)  National Agricultural Co-operative Marketing Federation of India Limited (NAFED)                 

                  The National Agricultural Co-operative Marketing Federation of India Limited (NAFED), a central nodel agency of Government of India had prescribed only one grade i.e. Fair Average Quality (FAQ) for the procurement of Bengal gram whole (Desi) under the Price Support Scheme (PSS) during 2002-2003 marketing season  which is given in Annexure IV. . 

  D)  Codex Standard  

       Codex standard prescribed for pulses including Bengal gram is given in Annexure-V.

  5.1   Grading at producers’ level                        

         There is an increasing recognition to grade the produce before sale to get better price and adequate returns. Directorate of Marketing and Inspection introduced the scheme of “Grading at Producers’ level” in 1962-63. The main objective of this scheme is to subject the produce to simple tests of quality and assign a grade before sale.  

 5.2  Sanitary & Phyto-Sanitary (SPS) requirements :  

The agreement on Sanitary and Phyto-Sanitary (SPS) measures is a part of the GATT   Agreement, 1994, for export and import trade. The aim of the agreement is to prevent the risk of introduction of new pests and diseases in new regions i.e. importing countries. The main purpose of the agreement is to protect human health, animal health and Phyto-Sanitary situation of all member countries and protect the members from arbitrary or unjustifiable discrimination due to different Sanitary and Phyto-Sanitary Standards.  

The SPS agreement applies to all Sanitary and Phyto-sanitary measures, which may directly or indirectly, affect international trade.  Sanitary measures deal with human or animal health, and Phyto-Sanitary measures are related to plant health.  SPS measures are applied in four situations for the protection of human, animal or plant health :

 

>    Risks arising from the entry, establishment or spread of pests, diseases, disease- carrying organisms or disease causing organisms.

>    Risks coming from additives, contaminants, toning or disease-causing organisms in foods, beverages or feed stuffs.

>    Risks arising from diseases carried by animals, plants or products thereof, or from the entry, establishment, or spread of pests.

>    Prevention or limitation of damage caused by the entry, establishment or spread of pests.  
 

   The SPS standards commonly applied by Governments, which affect imports are:  
 

(i)         Import ban (Total/partial) is generally applied when there is a significant rate of risk about a hazard.

(ii)       Technical specifications (Process standards/Technical standards) are most widely applied measures and permit import subject to compliance with pre-determined specifications.

(iii)       Information requirements (Labeling requirements/Control on voluntary claims) permit imports provided they are appropriately labelled.