gram is called Chickpea or Gram (Cicer
aritinum L.) in South Asia and Garbanzo bean in most of the developed world.
Bengal gram is a major pulse crop in India, widely grown for centuries and
accounts for nearly 40 percent of the total pulse production. India is the major
growing country of the world, accounting for 61.65 percent of the total world
area under Bengal gram and 68.13 percent of the total world production.
gram is widely appreciated as health food.
It is a protein-rich supplement to cereal-based diets, especially to the
poor in developing countries, where people are vegetarians or cannot afford
animal protein. It offers the most practical means of eradicating protein
malnutrition among vegetarian children and nursing mothers. It has a very
important role in human diet in our country.
2. NUTRITIONAL VALUE OF EDIBLE PORTION PER 100 G
Bengal gram (Dal)
3. ZONE-WISE MAJOR COMMERCIAL VARIETIES
Haryana, Western Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan,
Delhi, Jammu & Kashmir)
C235, H208, H355, G130, G543, RS10, RS11,
RSG2, GL769, GNG146, Pusa209, Pusa212, Pusa261, Pusa408, Gaurav,
K850, Radhey, BGD1053, Pusa372, L550, L144, Harechhole1, Pusa362,
Pusa1053, Pusa256, RSG888, GPF2, PVG1, PG186, Uday, Pusa391, Haryana
Chana1, Karnal Chana1, DCP-92-3, Gora Hisari, Samrat, Vardhan, Chamatkar,
Pusa267, ICCV32, KAK2.
: K468, K850, JG74, K4, K5, T3, Pant G114, G24, BR77,
Uttar Pradesh, Bihar,
BR78, Radhey BR168,
Pusa 209, Pusa240,Pusa256,
Orissa, West Bengal, Assam)
K850, JG74, T3, Pant G114, G24, BR77,L550,
BR78, Radhey BR168, Pusa256, Pusa413, B110, B115, ST4, C235,
Avrodhi, pusa209, pusa240, K4, K5, KGD1168, Uday, Annigeri (Co), Pusa362,
: JG62, JG74, JG221, JG315, JG5, Annigeri, Ujjain21, U24,
(Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat,
JG74, JG221, JG315, JG5, Annigeri, Ujjain21, U24, Gwalior3, Dohad yellow,
Chaffa, BDN 9-3, T3, H355, N31, N59, Vikas, D8, Pusa209, Pusa244, Pusa212,
Pusa417, Pusa 256, Pusa391, BGD72, BGD1053, Pusa372, ICCC4, L550, Vaibhav,
Vishal, GCPG62101, Radhey, JP315, Phule-G-12, Vijay, ICCV10( Bharti),
Gulak1(Gulabi Akola1), Kak2, ICCV2.
: Annigeri, BDN 9-3, Chaffa,Co1,
Co2, ICCC4, JG74,
Kerala, Tamil Nadu)
BDN 9-3, Chaffa, Co1, Co2,
Radhey, ICCC4, ICCV10 (Bharti), JG11, ICCL80074, ICCV37, ICCV2.
care should be taken during harvest
Avoid use of pesticides prior to harvest.
Avoid over-maturity of crop.
Harvesting before the crop matures usually means a lower yield and also a
higher proportion of immature seeds.
Timely harvesting ensures optimum grain quality and consumer acceptance.
Keep harvested crop for drying in the field.
Tag the bundles properly and keep at proper place.
Drying results in optimum moisture content in safe storage of produce
over a longer period of time.
Avoid harvesting during adverse weather conditions.
should be taken to avoid post-harvest losses.
a) Timely harvest.
b) Use of proper method of harvesting.
c) Adopt modern mechanical methods of threshing and winnowing.
d) Use of improved technique of processing.
e) Cleaning and grading of produce.
f) Use of efficient and good packaging for storage as well as for transportation.
g) Use of proper technique in storage.
h) Use of pest control measures in storage.
i) Proper care in handling of packages.
j) Avoid use of hooks during handling.
and marking of agricultural produce as per accepted quality standards helps
farmers, marketing functionaries, processors, traders and consumers in efficient
i) It enables the farmer to get higher price of the produce.
ii) It facilitates competitive marketing.
It widens the
marketing process as buying and selling can take place between two parties at
distant places, by quoting grades.
It reduces the
cost of marketing.
in maintaining quality of the produce.
It helps the
consumers to get standard quality of produce at reasonable prices.
the futures trading.
It helps in price
The Agricultural Produce (Grading and Marking) Act, 1937 was enacted to
maintain the quality of agricultural produce in India. The Act authorises the
Central Government to frame rules related to the fixing of grade standards and
the procedure to be adopted to grade the agricultural commodities included in
the schedules. The grade standards specified for Bengal gram pulse and Besan
drawn by Directorate of Marketing and Inspection are given in Annexure I and II
of Food Adulteration Act (PFA),1954
PFA has also prescribed the grade specification for whole chana, Dal
chana and Besan which is given in Annexure III.
Agricultural Co-operative Marketing Federation of India Limited (NAFED)
The National Agricultural Co-operative Marketing Federation of India
Limited (NAFED), a central nodel agency of Government of India had prescribed
only one grade i.e. Fair Average Quality (FAQ) for the procurement of Bengal
gram whole (Desi) under the Price Support Scheme (PSS) during 2002-2003
marketing season which
is given in Annexure IV.
prescribed for pulses including Bengal gram is given in Annexure-V.
There is an increasing recognition to grade the produce before sale to
get better price and adequate returns. Directorate of Marketing and Inspection
introduced the scheme of “Grading at Producers’ level” in 1962-63. The
main objective of this scheme is to subject the produce to simple tests of
quality and assign a grade before sale.
& Phyto-Sanitary (SPS) requirements :
agreement on Sanitary and Phyto-Sanitary (SPS) measures is a part of the GATT
Agreement, 1994, for export and import trade. The aim of the agreement is
to prevent the risk of introduction of new pests and diseases in new regions
i.e. importing countries. The main purpose of the agreement is to protect human
health, animal health and Phyto-Sanitary situation of all member countries and
protect the members from arbitrary or unjustifiable discrimination due to
different Sanitary and Phyto-Sanitary Standards.
SPS agreement applies to all Sanitary and Phyto-sanitary measures, which may
directly or indirectly, affect international trade. Sanitary measures deal with human or animal health, and Phyto-Sanitary
measures are related to plant health. SPS measures are applied in four situations for the
protection of human, animal or plant health :
from the entry, establishment or spread of pests, diseases, disease- carrying
organisms or disease causing organisms.
from additives, contaminants, toning or disease-causing organisms in foods,
beverages or feed stuffs.
from diseases carried by animals, plants or products thereof, or from the entry,
establishment, or spread of pests.
limitation of damage caused by the entry, establishment or spread of pests.
The SPS standards commonly applied by Governments, which affect imports
generally applied when there is a significant rate of risk about a hazard.
standards/Technical standards) are most widely applied measures and permit
import subject to compliance with pre-determined specifications.
(Labeling requirements/Control on voluntary claims) permit imports provided they
are appropriately labelled.